Answers to some of the questions we are being asked most often through our Helpline.
Getting a coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine
You can now book an appointment through the national booking service if one of the following applies to you:
- you are 45 or over
- you’ve received a letter saying you’re at high risk from the virus (clinically extremely vulnerable)
- you have a condition that puts you at higher risk (clinically vulnerable)
- you are a main carer for someone who is at high risk from the virus - find out more on the Carers UK website.
If you’re unable to use the online service, you can call 119 free of charge, any time between 7am and 11pm, seven days a week.
The vaccine is being offered in a range of places, including some hospitals, GP surgeries – but not necessarily at your own GP surgery – pharmacies and local vaccination centres. Some of these may be in sports stadiums, local sports centres or community halls. The government has also opened some mass vaccination centres around the country, in sports stadiums and conference centres.
Some vaccination teams will visit people to offer the vaccine, for example in care homes or if you are housebound. This may take longer to arrange. To find out more, read the government’s information about why you have to wait.
There are three vaccines currently in use in the UK. They all give a high level of protection against the virus.
You need two doses of the vaccine. The first dose should give you good protection, but you need the second dose for it to be fully effective. When you’ve had the first dose, you’ll get an appointment for your second dose, up to twelve weeks later. It may take up to three to four weeks after the first dose for you to build up immunity.
There is a chance you may still get the virus or spread it even after you’ve had the vaccine. You should continue to follow government guidance to protect yourself and others.
Scientists still don’t know how long immunity lasts and you might need to get vaccinated again in the future. You can find out more about the vaccine on the NHS website.
All new potential vaccines must be approved as safe and effective by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency before they can be rolled out.
So far, three COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for use and are being rolled out in the UK. They have been developed by Pfizer/BioNTech, Oxford/AstraZeneca and Moderna.
Most side effects from the vaccine are mild. They shouldn’t last longer than a week. You may experience some of the following:
- a sore or ‘heavy’ arm where you had the vaccination
- feeling tired
- a headache
- flu-like symptoms such as feeling achy.
You can take paracetamol for any of these symptoms. If you’re worried or your symptoms get worse, call NHS 111. If you seek advice, mention that you’ve had the vaccination.
Serious allergic reactions to the vaccine are rare but can happen. If you’re concerned, speak to your GP or healthcare professional.
For more information about what to expect after your vaccination, visit the government website.
The NHS will contact you to make an appointment when it's your turn for the vaccine. This may be by letter, email, text or phone. The vaccine is free. You won’t be asked to register or to give any financial details. Contact your GP or health provider if you have any concerns.
The appointment may not be at your own GP surgery. This is because of the way the vaccine has to be stored. You may be offered an appointment at a hospital, GP surgery, pharmacy, local sports centre or community hall, for example. The government has also opened mass vaccination centres in some sports stadiums and conference centres around the country.
At the moment, the government is saying that if it’s not easy for you to get to the vaccination centre, you may have to wait until the vaccine is available closer to where you live.
Some vaccination teams will visit people to offer the vaccine, for example in care homes or if you are housebound. This may take longer to arrange.
If you’ve been invited for the vaccine but you’re unable to get to the vaccination centre, contact your GP.
You should automatically be contacted for a vaccine as a carer if:
- You receive Carers Allowance or have an underlying entitlement to it.
- You receive support from your local council following a carer’s assessment
- Your GP has recorded that you qualify as a carer on your records.
If none of these apply, then you should contact your GP Practice to ask for your records to be updated. Carers UK have created a Template Letter that you can use to help you with making this request.
Managing your physical and mental health
If you have symptoms
You should ask for a free test as soon as possible if you have one or more of the following symptoms of COVID-19:
- a high temperature
- a new, continuous cough
- a loss or change to your sense of smell or taste.
This is called a PCR test. You must self-isolate for 10 days immediately (people in the same household should also self-isolate for 10 days). For more information about when and for how long you should self-isolate, visit the NHS website.
If you can’t get to a test site, you can order a home test kit. If you know someone who needs a test but is unable to apply online, you can apply for them with their permission, or they can call 119 to book a test.
People in hospital and essential workers are being given priority for tests. Residents in care homes can also be tested, whether or not they have symptoms, and anyone moving in to a care home will be tested beforehand.
Testing is most effective if it happens within 3 days of you developing symptoms. You'll need to use a long cotton bud to take a swab of the inside of your nose and the back of your throat. If you need help, someone else can do this for you.
If you don’t have any symptoms
If you don’t have any symptoms, or you’re not eligible for a PCR test, you should have a free lateral flow test. You can find a local rapid testing site on the government website or order a test you can do at home.
You can get the results within 30 minutes. If you test positive, you’ll be asked to book a follow up PCR test to confirm the result. You must report a positive result to the NHS. You can find out more on the NHS website.
Test and trace
If you've tested positive for coronavirus, the NHS Test and Trace service will contact you to find out who you've been in close contact with recently, and where you have visited. The NHS will then contact anyone that you've been in close contact with, so that they can self-isolate for 10 days. You can find out more about how this works on the government's test and trace page.
There are different policies for testing in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. For those who are not online, tests can be booked by calling 119 in Wales. In Scotland and Northern Ireland, call 0300 303 2713 to book a test.
As of 1 April, people in the clinically extremely vulnerable group no longer need to shield. For more information read the government’s guidance for people who are clinically extremely vulnerable from COVID-19.
If you are considered extremely clinically vulnerable, you should take extra care to maintain a social distance from people outside of your household or bubble and limit contact with others, as you are still at risk of getting severely ill if you catch coronavirus. There is some general guidance for people in this group on the government guidance page.
People in the extremely clinically vulnerable group include those who have:
- had an organ transplant and are receiving long-term immune suppression therapy
- certain types of cancer
- chronic kidney disease (stage 5), or who are on dialysis
- Down's syndrome (adults)
- a severe respiratory condition such as cystic fibrosis, severe asthma and severe COPD
- a rare disease or inborn error of metabolism that significantly increases the risk of infections (such as SCID, homozygous sickle cell)
- been receiving immunosuppression therapies
- significant congenital heart disease and are pregnant
- been informed by their GP or doctor that they are clinically extremely vulnerable.
If this applies to you and you are concerned, you should talk to your GP or specialist for their advice – it may be that they advise you to take particular precautions.
If you are unwell during this time and need to get advice from your GP, you can still call your GP surgery or contact them via their website. They can arrange for you to have a phone consultation with your GP and then, if necessary, you may be asked to visit the surgery. To keep yourself and others safe, you should not visit the surgery unless you have been advised to. Visit the NHS website or watch the NHS video about How to access your GP practice for more information.
If you have a health condition, like heart disease, asthma or diabetes, this can be a very worrying time. Most health helplines are open, so if you’re concerned about managing your condition, any symptoms or staying well, you could give them a call. You may want to speak to:
- Asthma UK
- British Heart Foundation
- British Liver Trust
- British Lung Foundation
- Dementia UK
- Diabetes UK
- Macmillan Cancer Support
- MND Association
- MS Society UK
- National Kidney Federation
- Parkinson’s UK
- Royal Osteoporosis Society
- Stroke Association.
Signhealth has created British Sign Language videos with coronavirus related information.
Doctors of the World have shared COVID-19 advice for patients in over 20 languages which were produced in partnership with the British Red Cross, Migrant Help and Clear Voice.
There are some conditions, such as diabetes, that put people at moderate risk of getting severely ill from COVID-19 (their condition means they are clinically vulnerable). There are other health conditions, such as severe asthma, that place people at the greatest risk of getting severely ill from COVID-19 (their condition means that they are clinically extremely vulnerable). If your medical condition falls into either category, it is important to take extra care to follow the latest government advice.
Although NHS 111 is very busy, you can still call them for advice about any symptoms you’re experiencing and advice about where to get support.
If you’re seriously ill or injured and your life may be at risk, call 999 immediately.
Talk to your loved ones and tell them about your wishes in case you become unwell, and a decision about your care and treatment needs to be made on your behalf. Tell them about what’s important to you and how you would like to be cared for. It’s important to write this down and let someone you trust know where they can find a copy. This is called an advanced statement. It isn't legally binding, which means that professionals involved in your care are not required to follow it but it does help them understand your preferences if a time comes when you’re unable to communicate this yourself.
You could also consider setting up an advance decision, which is a legally binding way of refusing treatment you don’t want in the future if you’re unable to make decisions for yourself.
You can speak to your GP about this, and they can support you in coming up with a plan for your care should you become unwell.
If you want to give someone the legal power to make decisions on your behalf, you can think about setting up a lasting power of attorney (LPA) if you haven’t already. If you decide to set one up, it may take longer than usual for your application to be processed and registered, so you may wish to also consider making an advanced statement. Read the government's guidance on making an LPA during the coronavirus outbreak. See our factsheet Managing my affairs if I become ill for more information about LPAs and advanced statements.
If you feel worried or anxious about the situation, you’re not alone and there are some steps you can take to help you manage. You might like to talk to friends and family to help you stay connected or call an organisation such as Samaritans or The Silverline for emotional support. You can also find online resources at Anxiety UK and practical support tools such as audio guides and mood self-assessments from the NHS.
Spending time doing the things you enjoy, staying active, eating well and sticking to a daily routine can all help too. Different things work for different people, so take time to work out what works best for you. Mind have guidance for people about looking after their mental health and wellbeing whilst self-isolating.
You can get tips on how to improve your sleep, and other resources to improve your mental wellbeing from Every Mind Matters.
If you feel your mental health has seriously been affected, talk to your GP to find out what help is available.
The NHS are trying to get as many routine appointments and operations as possible happening again, but you might still be asked not to attend an appointment in person if there is a different way to provide the care you need, such as through a video call.
Unless you have been told not to, you should go to any planned appointments you have. Speak to your GP or your healthcare team if you are unsure. You should be told about any changes to your care or how appointments will take place in advance. For example, you should be told if you need to wear a mask, or if you'll need to be tested for coronavirus before a planned operation.
See the page Using the NHS and other health services during coronavirus for more information.
Getting help at home
Yes – it’s important to keep receiving any essential help you get with washing, dressing and preparing meals, for example. Your care worker should have been given guidance about extra steps they must take to protect you, such as following hand hygiene guidance, and staying away if they show any symptoms of coronavirus. They should wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), such as aprons, gloves, fluid-repellent surgical masks and eye protection where necessary, in line with government guidance. This will also help to protect them if you are showing any signs of coronavirus.
If your care is arranged through an agency, the agency should send a different care worker to support you. Call the agency if this hasn’t happened.
Councils have wide powers to assist residents with care needs once they are aware of their situation. They can respond very quickly where required. If your care was arranged through adult social services at your local council, you can call the council if there are any problems with your care.
If you use council-arranged direct payments to fund a personal assistant and they can’t visit, call the local council to tell them straight away. They have a duty to ensure your needs are met. This could involve putting an interim arrangement in place until your personal assistant is able to resume their caring role.
If it’s a friend or relative who usually provides your care, and you’re not able to cope without their support, contact adult social services at your local council to ask for an urgent care needs assessment. You can find their details at gov.uk/apply-needs-assessment-social-services you contact your council to make a contingency plan, if you have concerns about your future care and support arrangements.
Government guidance says that cleaners and other trades people can work in people's homes unless:
- you or they have symptoms of coronavirus, even mild, or had them within the past 10 days
- you are self-isolating.
If a tradesperson does come in to your home, make sure you maintain a distance of 2 metres (3 steps) from each other, and follow the government's safe working guidance.
Getting shopping and paying bills
If you can’t top up your pre-paid gas or electricity meters, or afford to pay an energy bill, contact your energy supplier straightaway. They should have a range of support in place. For example, some suppliers are posting cards loaded with emergency credit or adding discretionary credit directly to your meter. You can find out more on the Ofgem website.
If you have a smart pre-payment meter, you should be able to top-up using an app, online or by phone. Your credit will be sent automatically to your meter.
If you’re unable to deal with your supplier on your own or you can’t get through to them, call the Citizens Advice consumer helpline (0808 223 1133) and ask to be referred to their Extra Help Unit.
If you don’t have friends, family or neighbours who can support you to get shopping and other essentials, think about using online shopping and prescription delivery services where possible. Anyone making deliveries should leave them on the doorstep or outside.
If you live in England, you can call 0808 196 3646 between 8am and 8pm to request support from an NHS Volunteer Responder. A friend or family member, your GP, community pharmacist, or any other health or local government official can also refer you. An NHS volunteer responder can help with things like prescription collection, shopping, lifts to appointments or even provide a friendly chat over the phone.
Many charities and local community groups are working hard to try and support people who are having to self-isolate. Contact your local council to find out about support in your area, or your local Age UK. You could also try the government's online service to help people to find the support they need.
If someone calls or visits you claiming to represent an organisation that wants to help you, ask for their name. Look up the organisation's telephone number yourself and then call the organisation directly to check that they are who they say they are. Do this before you agree to anything. It's a good idea to use a door chain when answering the door to people you don't know. Once you're happy to accept someone's help, agree in advance how you're going to pay. Never give your bank card or bank details out to anyone, and ask for receipts for everything, to avoid misunderstandings.
In Scotland, for details of where you can get additional support, visit Ready Scotland.
In Wales, you can contact Third Sector Wales to find out about support that is available in your area.
Supermarkets are doing their best to increase food deliveries to support people who are vulnerable, older and/or self-isolating. You may find it helpful to look at our tips for getting food and other essentials delivered.
You may also wish to complain to a supermarket. Ask the supermarket for a copy of its complaints procedure and follow this where possible. Try to make the complaint in writing and explain if you think you’ve been discriminated against because of your age or disability. Let the supermarket know what you’d like them to do about your issue(s). You can contact Citizens Advice consumer helpline (0808 223 1133) for more advice on how to complain.
If you are self-isolating and need to pay someone for food or other deliveries, but don’t have online banking or enough cash, you may want to pay them by bank transfer. Never give your bank card or bank details to anyone.
If you're not registered for telephone banking, call your bank and ask them to help you set it up. The Money Advice Service offers guidance about making bank transfers.
You can also use a cheque to pay someone if they accept it. If you don’t have a cheque book, call your bank and they should issue one free of charge.
Many supermarkets, including Asda, Waitrose, M&S, Sainsbury's, Tesco and Morrisons allow you to order an e-gift card online or over the phone. Depending on the scheme, you will be sent a barcode or email that a friend, family member or volunteer doing your shopping in store can present at the checkout. Some schemes will send the gift card straight to the person doing the shopping.
You may also be able to use the Post Office Payout Now service to access cash without going outside. Contact your bank, credit union or building society first to see if they offer this service. If they do, you can send a unique reference code by text, email or post to a person that you trust. They can take the code to any Post Office branch where it will be scanned in return for cash (the amount is set by you).
However you pay someone, always ask for receipts to avoid misunderstandings.
Your bank, credit union, or the Post Office may be offering a cash delivery service, or third-party cash withdrawals to people who are self-isolating.
Which? has more information about what the different banking providers are currently offering to their customers, or you can contact your provider directly for support.
Protecting yourself from coronavirus (COVID-19)
Surfaces and objects can become contaminated if an infected person transfers droplets by sneezing, coughing or breathing out. You can catch the virus if you touch a contaminated object or surface and then touch your eyes, nose or mouth before you have washed your hands.
It’s not clear how long the virus survives on contaminated surfaces, but the World Health Organization (WHO) have advised that the risk of catching the virus from post or delivery packages is low.
Do I need to disinfect packaging or other deliveries?
There are no official recommendations from the government or WHO to suggest that this is necessary. If you’re worried, there are ways you can reduce the risk of infection. For example, if you think a surface may be contaminated, clean it with a disinfectant like bleach. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water or use hand sanitiser gel after handling shopping or touching surfaces that may be contaminated. Remember to also avoid touching your eyes, mouth and nose.
It's now compulsory to wear a face covering in England when:
- using any public transport in England, or private hire vehicles and taxis
- visiting someone in hospital, or going to hospital yourself for an outpatient appointment
- when visiting a funeral service provider
- in a shop, supermarket or shopping centre
- visiting museums, galleries and indoor tourist sites
- going to theatres and cinemas
- going to the library, bank, post office and places of worship
- in a bar, restaurant or café, and not seated at a table to eat or drink.
For the full list of places where you must wear a face covering, see the government guidance on face coverings.
The Government is also asking people to consider wearing a face-covering when going into other enclosed spaces where keeping a 2m distance may not be possible.
People should not use medical-grade facemasks, as these are needed by health and social care professionals. Homemade cloth face-coverings may help stop the spread of the virus, if the wearer has the virus but does not have any symptoms.
Some people do not need to wear a face covering. See the government guidance for people who are exempt from wearing face coverings.
The respite (alternative) care services which are usually available for the person you care for may not be able to support you at this time. If you need a break from caring and don’t have any friends or family who are able to give immediate help in providing care, you can contact your local council to ask for some support. If friends or relatives step in to provide care on your behalf, it is important that they follow the guidelines set out in the government guidance for people who provide unpaid care to family or friends.
It is a good idea at this time to put in place (or review) an emergency plan with the person you care for, so that they would continue to get appropriate care and support if you were not able to provide care for them. You can find more information in the government guidance.
Think about delivering food and other essentials, such as prescriptions. Only drop off essentials if you are well yourself, and ensure you follow good hygiene practices, as explained on the NHS website. Leave supplies on the doorstep instead of going inside.
You could also help them in other ways, such as sending books, magazines or films. If they’re online, you could play games such as chess or Scrabble with them or introduce them to streaming services. Call them regularly. Encourage them to stay active at home and keep in touch with friends who are also self-isolating and might need some support.
Visit our Advice for volunteers page for ideas, and things to think about to keep yourself and the local community safe.
Hospitals can set their own visiting rules, to limit the risk of infection and keep everyone safe. In most circumstances, only one family member or someone close to the patient will be allowed to visit. See the guidance on visiting inpatient settings from NHS England for more information.
Contact the hospital or visit their website to find out about their latest visiting arrangements. If you do visit someone in hospital, you must wear a face covering at all times, and follow any other guidance you are given by the hospital about the number of visitors allowed, and social distancing whilst visiting someone, for example. You should not visit someone in hospital if you are experiencing symptoms of coronavirus or if you’ve been told you need to self-isolate.
As of 12 April, the rules on visiting care homes have changed. Where possible, care homes should allow residents to have regular indoor visits from two named visitors. They can visit together or separately. They should avoid close contact with the person they're visiting, such as hugging, but may be able to hold hands with them.
Other visitors can only visit someone in a care home where there are special arrangements, such as visiting pods, or behind windows or substantial screens. If the care home has an outbreak of coronavirus, no visits will be allowed.
Check with the care home what arrangements they have put in place to allow safe visiting. You can also speak to the care home or hospital to find out if they have set up any other arrangements to help you keep in touch, such as arranging video calls.